Actionable Book Summary: Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman
The Book In Three Or More Sentences:
Our mind uses two different systems to handle and analyze the things happening around us: fast and slow. The first is quick in conclusions but can often be wrong. The second is slower but has a greater chance of finding the right solution. By constantly increasing your knowledge, you will aid your fast mind so it can make fewer mistakes and upgrade your slow one to act faster in distasteful moments were making the right decisions is crucial.
The Core Idea:
The main idea of the author, Daniel Kahneman, is to help us understand our decision-making process and the means behind the different human acts. Using this information he wants to inspire us to solve the problems we face daily faster and better. Basically, to train our mind and more specifically upgrade our problem-solving skills.
Lesson #1: Practice Gives Us a Better Point Of View
We’ve all heard stories about the intuition of the expert: the grandmaster who walks near chess street players and announces that the “white will checkmate in three moves” without even stopping. Or, the car mechanic who can tell what’s the problem with your car by only hearing how the engine works without even looking under the hood.
We often think that such people have something magical in them. Something out of this world. We think that these people are born with this power. However, the truth is way different.
These people owe their success to the years of practice. They’ve spent a tremendous amount of time troubleshooting pretty much the same problems. Observing the same things over and over again, which finally allowed them to spot an issue or a potential threat by just a quick look at a certain situation.
It’s pretty much like exercising. If you train every day, you will eventually become stronger, your body will change and you will be able to lift more heavy shit. The same happens when you practice something specific. Your point of view changes and you see things differently. Your perspective evolves and you no longer need an hour to understand why something doesn’t work, you take a quick look and you know what’s the problem immediately.
The main point here is this: you should not seek to become an expert in every aspect of your life, simply choose a specific subject and devote your life towards this. You will eventually become an expert in this field of choice, which will bring you joy and admirations from the people around you.
Lesson #2: Thinking Fast And Slow
This is the main concept of the book and the most valuable takeaway. According to the research of the author, there are two main systems that we use to think, and to basically solve problems:
System 1: The first system acts fast. It is more primitive from the two and its main objective is to take care of our survival. For example, if you’re walking on the street and suddenly a car turns towards your direction your mind needs to act fast in order to protect you and get you out alive from this situation. The brain will send impulses and will help us quickly move or even jump if necessary.
The downside of system one is that it often triggers when we need to make an important decision, or, for example, respond to people. The fast way of thinking usually is quick on making conclusions but in most of the cases, such outcomes are wrong and have the potential to ruin your life in the long run. System one mostly relies on emotions.
For example: let’s say you’re married but you go to a club without your wife. An attractive female is showing interest in you. At this moment, you have a choice to make: your fast mind will immediately tell you that you should sleep with the girl. The reasons are many and all of them are based on a superficial conclusion: she’s attractive, an easy prey, your primitive brain will basically tell you to mate because that’s in your blood.
System 2: The slow way of thinking relies on logic. The main reason it’s slow it’s because it takes time to process all the information and to search for a similar experience in the owner’s brain. Slow thinking requires concentration and focus. This way of thinking is upset when attention is diverted. As the author explains in details: “Slow thinking requires more mental capacity.” Having the latter in mind, we can easily say that system two is more important for our overall success in life.
Slow thinking cannot be combined with other thought processes, and attempts will only de-focus you. For instance, writing a book or recording music requires complete concertation and any distraction will lead to unnecessary delays in the process.
In other words, the more you control and practice your slow thinking, the more successful you will be in life. You will become more productive and make better decisions faster.
Let’s say we’re in the same situation, the one mentioned above: you’re in the club and a beautiful woman is trying to take advantage of you. What will happen if we take a couple of minutes to think things through? Our logic will kick in and tell you that you should immediately walk away. It will whisper in your ear that you have a wife and that you shouldn’t cheat on her. Even if your wife never finds about this night, you will know and this will make you miserable. Also, it’s not fair to cheat on your wife. So, go home buster.
In conclusion, allow system one to work when the decision will not affect your future and turn to system two when important verdicts have to be made.
Lesson #3: Our Two Selves
Nature has put mankind under the power of two masters: pain and pleasure. And according to the research in the book, when we’re exposed to a short period of pain which abruptly stops, we’re more likely to remember this incident as a lot more painful if we rather experience pain over time which slowly decreases.
Or in other words, duration doesn’t count when we experience pain or pleasure. Only the peak (best or worst moment) and the end of the experience are registered in our brains.
Let me try to explain this better:
There are two selves hiding inside of us: The experiencing self and the remembering self.
The experiencing self asks: “Does it and how much it hurts now?”
The remembering self, on the other hand, asks the following: “How was the overall experience?”
We rely on those two when we make decisions with one tiny comment: the remembering self has greater power when we’re making future decisions.
Even though the average length of fixing a tooth is less than 5 minutes, we remember a visit to the dentist as the worst thing in our lives. Why? Because for a short period of time we experience a large portion of targeted pain.
This short example will give you a better perspective on how we remember things: A man was listening to a long symphony recorded on a disc, however, there was a scratch at the end of the disk and the end result was a shocking sound. After being asked, the man mentions that the bad end destroyed the whole experience. In fact, the experience is not destroyed, only the memory of it. The listener judges that the whole experience was bad because it ended badly. However, in reality, only the ending was bad. His assessment ignores the previous musical bliss in remembers only the bad moment.
Our remembering self is convincing us that certain situations, experiences, people are bad only because we had one bad moment with them. However, this is often not true and by convincing our minds that something is bad before we’re 100% certain that it’s bad, we might miss out on possible future pleasurable experiences.
Lesson #4: If You Can’t Solve A Difficult Task Find The Easy One Hiding Inside
I love this insight so much. It’s basically the foundation for doing more stuff in a shorter time frame.
Whether it’s in our job, at school or at home, we are constantly facing difficult tasks that require our attention. The solution often doesn’t seem so obvious and we spent a tremendous amount of time searching for the perfect answer.
Often, the main reason we spend so much time troubleshooting a single task without finding the answer it’s because we have the wrong initial approach all along.
“If you can’t solve a difficult task, start by solving the easy task first. You only need to find it hiding inside,” says Daniel Kahneman. This way of handling obstacles is part of the heuristic method, which is: an approach to problem-solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but sufficient for the immediate goals.
It sounds super confusing, I know.
Basically, it means replacing a difficult question with another, simpler one. That’s the whole strategy for solving difficult tasks.
Let’s look at the questions below. These are difficult questions which will require quite a research before you can answer them. Instead, we can replace them with such that are much easier to answer (the easy ones are bolded):
How much money will I save by the end of the year?
How much money do I earn now?
How much will be the price of a bitcoin in the following six months?
How much is the price of a single bitcoin, now?
My girlfriend enrolled in piano classes last week. How long will it take her to play the piano like a pro?
How much time does she spend practicing in her spare time?
I think you got the point. The idea here is to try to simplify things. When facing a complex task, which you can’t answer, try to look at the problem from another point of view. Disassemble the big chunk into smaller pieces which are easier to execute and answer.
Find the easy task: As mentioned above, when facing a difficult situation, or a complex task, look for the easy task/solution hiding inside.
Think before you act: As mentioned above, our fast mind is designed to get us out of certain situations – avoiding a car crash, for example – but it can get us in trouble in others. When you need to make an important decision, take the time to think about all the other factors. Make sure your taking decision based on your slow mind.
Be a rational person: The word rationality means awareness, control, measurement. We say that someone is rational when we see the logic in their actions. Irrational, on the other hand, are people controlled by emotions and impulses. As you can figure it out, being irrational or someone who is mostly controlled by emotions is not a good thing.
Practice: Only by continuous practice, you can become better and essentially be recognized as an expert. But first, you need to choose your field. If you still don’t know, devote some time to figure it out.
Expectations: The human mind associate different people, places, even objects with certain things. For example, we associate the fridge with food, the playground with fun, books with knowledge and etc. The same way, we can make other people associate us, our own identities in a certain way. For example, if you continuously write posts and articles, others will think that you’re a writer. Basically, what you do will define you as a person in front of others. So, my question for you is: What do you do?
Commentary And My Personal Takeaway
To be honest, the book is quite boring after the first 100 pages. It starts nice with a lot of examples but after that the scientific language becomes unbearable. It will be probably a good read for a professor in the field of psychology, but for the average reader, there are so many things you need to filter out in order to understand the essential.
My suggestion, don’t read it. The notes above basically give you the essential ideas.
The best tip is this: Expose yourself to more things but later focus your time on doing one specific thing. This way, you’ll upgrade your knowledge and act adequately in more situations.
If you care about being thought credible and intelligent, do not use a complex language where simpler language will do.”
A reliable way of making people believe in falsehoods is frequent repetition, because familiarity is not easily distinguished from truth.”
We can be blind to the obvious, and we are also blind to our blindness.”